History: History is a chronological account of events as they took place in the past.
Why should we study History:
i) We should study history as it tells us about our past.
ii) It gives us understanding about our ancient culture and lifestyle.
iii) It helps us to solve the problems of the present day world.
Time frames of History:
i) Historians use chronological sequence for a better understanding. Birth of Jesus Christ has been taken as year zero.
ii) Any event before Christ is called Before Christ (BC) and an’,’ event after the birth of Jesus is called Anno Domini (AD).
iii) Timeline of history is divided into three stages — prehistory, protohistory and history.
There did people live:
(i) People lived near river valle s. This was because rivers provided water for all purposes.
(ii) Traces of life were found near Sulaiman and Kirtar hills in North West.
(iii) Traces of life even existed along Ganga. Mahajanpadas like Magadha, Kashi, Vajji, etc. flourished 2500 years ago
How was the name India Derived:
i) Our country is called India and Bharat.
ii) Bharat was used by the people of North India in the Sanskrit composition Rigveda.
iii) The word Indus traces its roots from the river Indus which is called Sindhu in Sanskrit. How do we know about the past:
(i) Archaeologist and historians study several sources to tell us about the past. There are two sources – archaeological and literary.
(ii) Archaeology: The study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of physical remains.
(iii) Archaeologists use sources like monuments, artefacts, inscription and coins.
(iv) Handwritten or any other written record of the past is known as a literary source
(v) Literary sources include two types of literature – religious literature and secular literature.
Why studied sources of History:
i) There were two groups of people who studied history. One was called archaeologist and the other group was called historians.
ii) Archaeologists studied remains of buildings made of stones, bricks, paintings and sculptures.
iii) The other group called historians were the people who studied the past and used information found in the inscriptions, seals and scripts.
Facts that Matter:
• People have lived on the banks of the Narmada for several thousand years. The earliest of them were skilled gatherers—people who gathered their food.
• Near Sulaiman and Kirthar hills in the present-day Pakistan, crops like wheat and barley were first grown 8000 years ago. People also began rearing animals like sheep, goat, and cattle. They lived in villages. Rice was first grown in the north of the Vindhyas.