- A map is a representation or a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale.
- It is impossible to flatten a round shape completely.
- When many maps are put together we get an Atlas.
- Atlases are of various sizes, measurements drawn on different scales. Maps provide more information than
- Maps showing natural features of the earth such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are
called physical or relief maps.
- Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different countries and states of the world with their boundaries
are called political maps.
- Some maps focus on specific information; such as road maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of
forests, industries etc. are known as thematic maps.
Components of Maps
- Maps are drawings, which reduce the entire world or a part of it to fit on a sheet of paper.
- Maps are drawn to reduced scales.
- This reduction is done very carefully so that the distance between the places is real.
- It can only be possible when a small distance on paper represents a large distance on the ground.
- Therefore, a scale is chosen for this purpose.
- Scale is the ratio between the actual distance on the ground and the distance shown on the map.
3. Small scale map
- When large areas like continents or countries are to be shown on a paper, then we use a small scale. It is called a small scale map
4. Large scale map.
- When a small area like your village or town is to be shown on paper, then we use a large scale that is 5 cm. on the map shows 500 metres only on the ground. It is called a large scale map
*Large scale maps give more information than small scale maps.
- Most maps contain an arrow marked with the letter ‘N’ at the upper right hand corner.
- This arrow shows the north direction.
- It is called the north line.
- When you know the north, you can find out other directions, for example east, west and south.
- Cardinal points
- North, South, East and West are called cardinal points
- Other four intermediate directions are north-east (NE), southeast(SE), south-west (SW) and north-west (NW).
- It is not possible to draw on a map the actual shape and size of different features such as buildings, roads, bridges, trees, railway lines or a well.
- They are shown by using certain letters, shades, colours, pictures and lines
- These symbols give a lot of information in a limited space.
- With the use of these symbols, maps can be drawn easily and are simple to read.
- If you don’t know the language of an area and therefore cannot ask someone for directions, you can collect information from maps with the help of these symbols.
- Maps have a universal language that can be understood by all.
- There is an international agreement regarding the use of these symbols. These are called conventional
- Various colours are used for the same purpose.
- A sketch is a drawing mainly based on memory and spot observation and not to scale.
- A rough drawing is required of an area to tell where a particular place is located with respect to other
- A rough drawing is drawn without scale, and is called a sketch map.
- A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale.
- A large-scale map gives lot of information, but there are certain things which we may sometimes want to know
for example the length and breadth of a room, which can’t be shown in a map.
- Drawings drawn to scale called a plan.