Maps

• A map is a representation or a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale.
• It is impossible to flatten a round shape completely.

Atlas

• When many maps are put together we get an Atlas.
• Atlases are of various sizes, measurements drawn on different scales. Maps provide more information than
a globe.

PHYSICAL MAPS

• Maps showing natural features of the earth such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are
called physical or relief maps.

POLITICAL MAPS

• Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different countries and states of the world with their boundaries
are called political maps.

THEMATIC MAPS

• Some maps focus on specific information; such as road maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of
forests, industries etc. are known as thematic maps.

Components of Maps

1. DISTANCE
• Maps are drawings, which reduce the entire world or a part of it to fit on a sheet of paper.
• Maps are drawn to reduced scales.
• This reduction is done very carefully so that the distance between the places is real.
• It can only be possible when a small distance on paper represents a large distance on the ground.
• Therefore, a scale is chosen for this purpose.

2. Sclae

• Scale is the ratio between the actual distance on the ground and the distance shown on the map.

3. Small scale map

• When large areas like continents or countries are to be shown on a paper, then we use a small scale. It is called a small scale map

4.  Large scale map.

• When a small area like your village or town is to be shown on paper, then we use a large scale that is 5 cm. on the map shows 500 metres only on the ground. It is called a large scale map

*Large scale maps give more information than small scale maps.

DIRECTION

• Most maps contain an arrow marked with the letter ‘N’ at the upper right hand corner.
• This arrow shows the north direction.
• It is called the north line.
• When you know the north, you can find out other directions, for example east, west and south.
1. Cardinal points
• North, South, East and West  are called cardinal points
• Other four intermediate directions are north-east (NE), southeast(SE), south-west (SW) and north-west (NW).

SYMBOLS

• It is not possible to draw on a map the actual shape and size of different features such as buildings, roads, bridges, trees, railway lines or a well.
• They are shown by using certain letters, shades, colours, pictures and lines
• These symbols give a lot of information in a limited space.
• With the use of these symbols, maps can be drawn easily and are simple to read.
• If you don’t know the language of an area and therefore cannot ask someone for directions, you can collect information from maps with the help of these symbols.
• Maps have a universal language that can be understood by all.
• There is an international agreement regarding the use of these symbols. These are called conventional
symbols.
• Various colours are used for the same purpose.

SKETCH

• A sketch is a drawing mainly based on memory and spot observation and not to scale.
• A rough drawing is required of an area to tell where a particular place is located with respect to other
places.
• A rough drawing is drawn without scale, and is called a sketch map.

PLAN

• A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale.
• A large-scale map gives lot of information, but there are certain things which we may sometimes want to know
for example the length and breadth of a room, which can’t be shown in a map.
• Drawings drawn to scale called a plan.